The Department of Structures and Bridges was established in 1980 by integration of the Department of Structures and the Department of Bridges. However, both units were originated at the University of Railways in Prague in 1953 as the principal departments at the former Faculty of Civil Engineering. The well-known experts from the field of structures and bridges were at the head of both departments, like prof. Milan Mencl, prof. Antonín Skrbek, prof. Jiří Klimeš and prof. Vladimír Dvořák. After 1980, the integrated department was chaired by assoc. prof. Ladislav Kapasný, assoc. prof. Štefan Zemko, prof. Hynek Šertler, prof. Ing. Vladimír Tomica, CSc., assoc. prof. Andrej Sokolík, prof. Josef Vičan. Since 2010, the head of the department is prof. Ján Bujňák.

Initially, the Department of Structures and Bridges was divided into three sections, namely the Section of Concrete Structures and Bridges, the Section of Steel Structures and Bridges and the Section of Building Engineering. In 1993, the Section of Building Engineering was separated to create an independent department. Therefore, nowadays the Department of Structures and Bridges consists just of the former two sections.